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tv   Electric Grid Modernization Security Part One  CSPAN  June 26, 2018 9:29pm-10:13pm EDT

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>> next a hearing about modernization efforts and the security of the electric grid. the house science subcommittee on energy considered ways to fortify the grid against catastrophic events alternative energy use and protecting against cyber use and the consequences of proposed budget cuts. this runs an hour and 25 minutes minutes.
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. >> energy come to order. declare recess at any time. welcome to today's hearing entitled the electric grid of the future. i now recognize myself for five minutes for an opening statement and by the way, we may have votes called for a short order. so we may be quicker than normal, not that anything we do is normal. we will hear from the national laboratory, private sector and research fr creating the electric grid of the future, this is to ensure energy systems are reliable, and secure. the grid develops energy to consumers and businesses on demand regardless of the energy sources, a resilient grid keeps energy going in an adverse event and energy once an outage has occurred. secured grid takes it from hostile disruption due to cyber
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attacks, which are a growing risk as more industrial control systems are connected. the office of electricity and emergency liability oe is leading the research and development programs that promise to deliver advancements in grid technology. small by mighty oe carries out a vital mission by national labs. science expertise is physics, network also goat ritmentes and computational modeling to help analyze modern electrical grids. this developed these capabilities through its nuclear weapons mission. this kind of basic science expertise with multidisciplinary applications is what part of makes the system lab system for
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technology and continues to advance research beyond its intended goals. academia is also on national research. xas tech has gleam facility that works to develop power technologies and add vance next generation delivery technology. gleam focuses on when the battery storage and micro grid technologies that will all encompass the electrical grid of the future. advanced grid technologies can have a significant impact when the grid is faced with weather related event that is can threaten reliability. this month brings the official start of the 2018 hurricane season and last year communities in my home state of texas, as well as florida and puerto rico lost power. modern grid technology in texas such as the use of smart meters were able to identify power outages that could help restore
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power after hurricane harvey. fortunately while they have made progress rebuilding technologies, there are still communities in puerto rico without power. that's what doe and oe and five national labs led by argon have grid models tools to puerto rico. the national labs are combining their skills and capabilities in order to help puerto rico to plan and rebuild a more resilient grid. these models help grid operators better predict where the higher risk could be and critical power ads t support puerto rico's public health. the island will be able to make key investments in energy infrastructure before the current hurricane system. analysis will inform puerto rico
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on long term investment priorities for disibution, renewable energy, battery storage, mite coat grid and strategic power reserves. as we continue supporting grid research, i would like to learn more how deo can improve technology and our understanding of electrical systems. i want to thank our panel of witnesses and i look forward to a positive discussion about grid modernization research. i now recognize the ranking member, the gentleman from texas for an opening statement. >> thank you, mr. chairman. fellow texan and everybody else here today, distinguished panel, just last week i want to remind everybody that a memo was leaked that raised several questions. it detailed a plan to direct energy secretary also from texas
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to use authorities invested in him to use the production act to save coal and nuclear powerplants and concerns related to natural disasters and other energy shortages. likewise is a cold era statute that allows the president to nationalize elements of the u.s. industry in the interest of national security. this proposal has been widely criticized by a wide range of experts, including wall street journal editorial page as a poorly justified and dubious. our states research earns do the hard work of heartening our energy and national disasters. meanwhile inventing the build out of coal plants while ignoring the real problems.
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i'm sure the white house views this legal loophole an easy way to try to fulfill campaign promises, which is very bad and very unsound when it comes to energy policy. however, the real impact has not been the administration. it would wreak havoc. severe weather on climate change becomes more intense and damaging to the grid. this administration wants to address the problem by offering financial bailouts and picking winners and losers. and any reasonable person would agree this seems backward. moreover it wouldn't do anything to make the retro grid more resilient. grid experts that have examined our nations priorities more than this motivationed administration
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does. that is why they unaniusly rejected secretary perry's last proposal to bail outl and nuclear powerplants and while the trump administration works th coal ceos f a plan to benefit the bottom dollar, the american people are being left behind and i look forward to hearing from mr. grem lich on recent report on electric system resilience. i can't think of a better way to approach this issue. the purpose is t provide reliable affordable power to its customers. anything that doesn't first consider the customer is not worth having. and while i am critical of these actions by secretary perry on grid resilience, i want to be clear i support advancing technologies to enable carbon capture on coal fired powerplants on the next generations of nuclear reactors,
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in fact, i just introduced a bipartisan bill, hr research and development act of 2018 that would authorize activities to support the development of activities and carbon capture, storage and removal. it is the most comprehensive proposal for research today. so i certainly have no issues for the support of these options. i think we need to be smarter about how we approach these issues. we are fortunate to have secretary bruce walker with us. i look forward to hearing justifications for the actions for secretary perry and i also look forward to hearing your priorities for the office of electricity and fy 2019 budget proposal, the administration requests a severe 37% cut through the office of electricity and reorganization
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of these investments. i'm sure we will discuss that here shortly and while i'm not opposed to the organization in concept, i'm curious how splitting the d oe's offices into two offices will continue to be a priority in years to come. and before i close, i also would like to take some personal privilege to note, unfortunately this will be the last time joe parita will be staffing us. that's because he recently won the bourque foundation fellowship and will be moving to germany. recognize that joe has done a tremendous job in the subcommittee. a salute. and we look forward to seeing you when you come back. he played a very key role in
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negotiating a bipartisan legislative package in the department of energy research hah has the passed the house and now advancing to the senate and lead staff in vetting language for the fossil energy research bill that i previously mentioned. that bill has now been endorsed by a broad coalition of stake holders and i know that would not have happened without all the effort joe put into it. i hope we work together again and i know you will have a great opportunity overseas. congratulations. and gentlemen, i go back. >> thank you. i'm not sure what you said in german. but more importantly, he better learn to speak wife, starting a family. i now recognize the chairman of the full committee, mr. smith. >> thank you. the subcommittee today is going to examine the department of energy's effort to modernize the
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electrical grid and i very m look forward to hearing what the witnesses have sto to say. doe and energy make up our grid. this is critical research and development will help i dress vulnerabilities that range from cyber attacks to natural disasters. another is grid scale battery storage and incorporating that into our electric grid. energy resources is important how it is delivered. these energy sources are intermittent and depend on the sun to shine and the wind to blow. without the capacity to firly store the energy produced, these resources can only make a minimal contribution to energy needs. storage is the key to modernizing the grid without
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sack rig fiezing reliability -- sacrificing reliability. the battery storage that could have in accessing storage. texas is the biggest wind state. so it's no surprise they have a testing site in luck bibbing, texas, only at the national laboratories to test and develop wind energy technology. while swis primary objectives to improve turbine performance, swift also provides a test for supporting wind power with battery technology. researchers are testing different designs to harness wind energy on demand. breakthroughs on grid storage will help incorporate renewable energy resources into the energy
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mix. scaling up batteries will necessitate addressing cost efficiency and size limitation problems. doe research and development can provide the solutions and build a foundation for the next fundmental break through and doe continues to prioritize the grid modernization initiative across the research program that harnesses the skill sets of labs for new grid technologies. the national laboratory, home to one of today's witnesses researchers are developing new power system designs that will improve the reliability and resiliency of grid. with the technogy expertise developed for the nuclear weapons programs, this uses applied mathematics to research delivery systems. the national laboratories are also home to the joint center for energy storage research,
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energy innovation hub. the doe bring researchers and manufacturering together in order to have energy technology, passing the house and authorizing the department of energy innovation hub program to continue this important dlab ra tif research effort. by developing a better battery, national labs and universities can help the private sector lead the way in bringing battery storage technology to the marketplace. this early stage research will help provide a reliable resilient energy grid. that's what we need in this country. thank you. >> i thank the gentlemen for yielding back. it is now my distinct privilege to yield to the member of the full committee, ms. johnson. >> thank you very much,
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mr. chairman. . >> i thank all the witnesses for being here today, the doe's office of electricity support programs that are critical to improving the flexibility and reliability to our electric grid. while also enabling a broad range of clean energy resources to play a larger role in our power and transportation sectors. this is another reason that i'm so concerned about the administration's budget proposal, which would cut funding for this office by 37%
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and that overall cuts includes 62% cut to clean energy transmission and reliability, 74% cut to smart grid research and 81% energy storage rnd. despite the fact the secretary has referred to energy storage as a holy grail of energy in several congressional hearings, these large proposed cuts to energy reliability and resilience research are also curious in light of several recent proposals made by the secretary to take unprecedented urgent actions that would prop up uneconomic powerplants under the guys of ensuring reliability and resilience for electric
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independence experts across the political spectrum have rejected these proposals in favor of far more vigorous, well justified approach to adjusting these issues, while continuing to make substantial progress for our nation's clean energy future and i believe i believe mr. gremlich will be able to discuss in more detail, there is no reason we can't have a clean reliable energy sector that takes advantage of a broad range of our resource and technology options, including renewables energy storage, nuclear power and fossil fuels with car ron capture without going to such an extreme of ill conceived lengths to save one particular resource at the expense of the others.
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lastly, i would like to take this opportunity to note sad that this will be the committee's last hearing staffed by joe for now. he has worked for us over the last five years, started out as an intern and rising to become one of the top staff of our energy team. you have done an outstanding job. he is the son of a nurse. he is highly professional. he has done highly professional work throughout his time on the committee, including developing several substantive well bipartisan legislative proposals that i am confident will continue to advance even if he moves to bigger and better things. he is leaving because he is won the foundation fellowship. in a few weeks he will be moving to germany in one year.
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i would like to congratulate you, joe, and wish you well and hope you come back to see us after you have made our country proud. i thank you, mr. chairman. >> gentle lady, we all echo her comments. can we give joe a hand. [applause] >> i'm going to introduce the witnesses. hon rational bruce walker, the secretary for the office of electricity and cybersecurity, energy security and energy response. secretary walker has more than 25 years of electric utility experience previously working as asset strategy polity and corporate energy management at consolidated edson of new york. he is the founder of modern energy insights inc. and assistant secretary walker has served as a member of the
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electricity advisory committee for megawatt scale lab and member of gridwise alliance incorporated. he was confirmed as assistant secretary by the united states senate in october 2017. he holds a bachelor in electrical engineering and master of law where he was the technical editor on the law review. welcome, mr. walker. >> and next witness is john sorrow, am i saying that right? in losalamos laboratory. from 2013 to 2018 he served as associate director for theory assimilation and competitionation where he applied science based predictions through emerging national security emissions. he has held a number of
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leadership positions including division leader of materials, physics and applications leader of commence matter and thermal physics. he has also served as a member of doe subcommittees helping direction for material research. dr. sorrow is a fellow of the american member of science and los alamos laboratory. he received his degree. >> president of grid strategies llc. prior to his current position, mr. gramlich american wind for senior vice government, interim ceo and policy director. economic advisor to former chairman pat the iii from 2005.
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and north american standards board as vice chair of the business council for sustainable energy and as interim executive director of the wind energy foundation. mr. gramgramlich has received the an achievement award and honors and master public policy from u.s. california berkeley. welcome. i now recognize the chairman, mr. smith. >> thank you, mr. chairman. i appreciate being able to introduce our last witness today and that is dr. joseph hep art, no happy it includes frederick berg, texas, with about 200 students and i leverage that too the maximum extent possible. we are glad to welcome dr. he
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beer to hear how it benefits the grid. previously he vuz vice chancellor for research and also shared ku's department and director for the science education. he has been active in projects to impruf science teaching and preparation and is the past chair of the american kept cal society's committee on education. he is a fellow of the american chemical society and currently serves as chair on the american chemical's society on finance. he received a bachelor of science from san jose university and ph.d. in organic chemistry, often thought to be the toughest subject from the university of wisconsin, madison and we appreciate you and appreciate what texas tech is doing. >> thank you to all the witnesses for being here today i now recognize assistant secretary walker for 5 minutes
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for his the president. >> thank you, chairman. chairman webber, chairman -- for his testimony. >> thank you, chairman. chairman webber, i appreciate the opportunity to discuss the research programs of the office of energy electricity and energy security and department of energy is ensuring the energy infrastructure is capable of securing our security, therefore it is of the utmost. oe collaborate with state and local governments and other stake holders on numerous programs to achieve these objectives. using the definition set forth in the presidential policy directive 21, defined as the ability to prepare for and adapt to changing positions and stand
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with reaction. the ability to stand and recover from delivered attacks, accidents or natch rig occurring threats or accidents. doe, which is a national security energy with a comprehensive intelligence community informed view of resilience recognizes that the energy sector has been the main focus of cyber and threat attacks. the actions doe are taking to address the very risks we face. first the office of electricity has been divided into two separate departments, in order to significantly increase the focus commensurate with the known risk of cyber and physical threats, therein creating cybersecurity and energy security and emergency response, as well as the office of electricity. my office's first priority is
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the credit action of the model, previous national lab work and being leveraged to fully understand the resiliency risk of a highly diversified grid that supplies energy for north erica. most important, significant interdependencies that have evolved over the last couple decades between the various infrastructures. significantly the model will highlight where specific capen'ts offer for infrastructure. most important by from doe's advantage poi, prove our overall resilience capability. another priority is to revolutionize the utilization. the goal is ingreat near realtime data and also be able
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to use signature and informed by artificial intelligence and machine to machine learning to significantly improve the performance of the dprid. furthermore -- grid. furthermore, these will have vulnerabilities and enhance energy resources and the use of micro grids and energy storage. storage, the holy grail of energy has a huge role to play in energy. there are initiatives in doe focusing from pump storage to flow batteries. there has never been a time where megawatt storage has been more important. oe is voiding reactive for bulk power systems, as well as frequency control. working with the national laboratories, oe is pursuing three high probability capabilities, batteries using organics, sodium based batteries
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and recharge bl and zink batteries. oe and caesars are members of the grid modernization, oi focuses on new concepts, tools and technologies that will better analyze and protect the grid. oe and the office of energy official cig, the gmi has been expanded to include caesar, the office of fossil energy and nuclear energy. to ensure comprehensive doe approach to r & b. part of the gmi and established a strategic partnership between the national labs. we have a next multiyear plan to continue our efforts for r & d projects with our labs. in conclusion, the energy sector continues to face challenges and threats every day. the department continues to
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pursue diverse yet targeted r & d prompts to enhance the reliability of o the nation's grid necessary to ensure national security. the cutting edge developed by our labs and the research developed in collaboration with our private and public sector partners will continue the resiliency of the grid for years to come. >> thank you. >> chairman webber, smith, thank you member johnson, members of the subcommittee, thank you for the opportunity to address future research opportunities for the united states electric grid and many benefits and risks that would result for an integrated grid infrastructure. my personal research and technical leadership career has emphasized national security science, physics research toed a
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vanced materials design and discovery to losalamos, with the national laboratory has contributed meaningfully to research specific for many years. the challengesheri face is the need for enhanced resilience against natural events and external actors, control tape blt for integrating renewables, anomalies including the effect of machine methods, in responding to these challenges, losalamos includes math and statistics. and reach back expertise and weapons design including weapons effects and weapons scale modeling and space science and space weather capabilities,
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finally, deeply committed to workforce development and boosting irregular conference to help educate and expand the grid resoerj community. to further support these efforts los alamos has created ansy, focused on modeling and understanding the nation's critical infrastructures such as power, water, petroleum and natural gas. given our history and grid research, we were glad to participate in the gmlc beginning in year 2016, bringing their complementary research. more broadly losalamos sees challenges that need to be
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addressed. first threats to u.s. power systems. potentially vulnerable to large scale complex threats including disturbances and pulses from high altitude detonation. second, cyber physical threats, combined cyber infrastructure, developing a cyber physical impact modeling capability will enable stake holders to assess the possibility consequences of cyber attacks on infrastructure and prioritize investments. third, the grid coupled systems, key infrastructure and will be only more so with the supply of natural gas resources. the expansion of natural gas fired generation and transmission system and expansion of gas fire distribution generation electric distribution system further expand that. and fourth, grid water network
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coupling and control. potable and wastewater systems can be controlled to the benefit of water and electrical systems with storage built in, potable water networks can play a key role in optization of e system. how are these must remain their own reliability. i appreciate the brief remarks for the challenges and opportunities for the united states's electric grid we see at los alamos. it would end in a modern structure. this has been a positive step forward and we have been proud to play a role with our national laboratories. as we look to the future we see challenges to sponging to complex threats including cyber physical challenges and consideration the integrated systems represented by our
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coupled gas and electric infrastructure. in closing i would like to thank you for the opportunity to appear before the subcommittee. i look forward to answering any questions you may have. >> thank you. dr. gramlik. >> members for the sub xhiet tee, thank you for allowing me to testify. since modern society requires affordable, clean, and reliable electricity for commercial pursuits, there is no infrastructure more important than the interstate electric met work. while reliability is very high and growing as reported by nerk today by ferk acrosstown, threats are changing. we need to expand grid capacity and against cyber attacks and make use of the existing grid. oe can may a key role.
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oe can continu verj development and demonstration for technologies for the grid, promoting grid expansion through permitting and studies,s developing and bringing grid opportunities to market. develo customer end reliability and resilience options for critica uses such as military facilities and hospitals and supporting studies of bulk power system reliability to the evolving threats. the national academy of sciences recently had a resilience report that had 12 recommendations. eight for were deo. oe could play a lead role in implementing those recommendations. given the importance of a reliability electric grid to modern society and critical role it plays in both centralized and distributed resources and managing various threats, oe should have far greater resources than it has. at the same time, oe resources and attention should noot be
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diverted to support the recently announced directi to extend the lives of old coal and nuclear plants. subsidizing such resources will ultimately harm and not help customers and oe's work will detract from itsorta mission. the directive ignores some basic facts about electricity. it ignores that coal and nuclear plants are just as susceptible to cyber attack as any other facility. it ignores the fact that coal plants have fuel delivery interruptions and often failures during cold weather, both coal and nuclear are particularly vulnerable to droughts and ignores that coal and nuclear plants shut down in rpoe to
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voltage and frequency deviation and narrow band of tolerance than, for example, wind plants. this is what happened in the 2,3 blackout whenirst energy plant automatically shut se down. the point here is -- i should also say the directive ignores that 50-year-old plants have outages 53% more than new plants. so all technology, all generated resources have their strengths and weakenses and contributes in different ways, but of them are essential. reliability comes from having reserves. all generators fail to operate atome point. in fact, each region already has a strategic electric generation reserve called the reserve margin and in surplus condition right now in most regions. so whether or not there are national security interest at stake, the proposed solution
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will not help. due to the futility of this directive, oe should stay clear of it and focus on what matters for customers. oe's modeling to support the plan should be krupt niez -- skrurt niezed carefully for the grid's evolution given changes in the resource mix and evolving threats. it will be important for congress to rig lousily oversee the department of -- rigorously oversee the department of energy and that tax dollars are not wasted on ill conceived programs. >> doctor, you have five minutes. >> good morning chairman webber, smith and members of the subcommittee. i'm vice president of research and chemistry at texas tech university and i am pleased to address you today. original mandate was to serve the enoccasional needs of west
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texas, but its ambitions as framed by the president has been to make innovation and collar ship of the world. today's tech system ranks among the major public universities of the united states. as many know from working with it in your districts, these institutions have a critical i want know vati rule in defining the grid research. both natural hazards and actions by our adversaries propose significant problems to our grid. the 2017 hurricane season was a harrowing reminder. communities in texas, florida and puerto rico were in some cases continue to be devastated in the aftermath of these storms, based on this, we can expect more disruptions of this
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nature. at the same time future conflicts between adversaries may employ grid infrastructure as a prime target. indeed some cases provide that both state and nonstate actors have the ability to threaten our grid. on top of this any grid has the assumption that it will continue to grow and in turn provide more decentralized and therefore resilient system. in light of these challenges and generous support of the state of texas, department of energy and indury and national laboratories, texas tech has been working hard to address the central question, how can we make the energy more secure, reliability and robust and more resilient. at texas tech we are providing
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answers. dr. rem in tech's engineering offers an array of diverse power ur to go with the grid. resilient i want gracing of the grid renewables with the world applicability that would rebuild puerto rico's structure post hurricane maria. and electrical engineering, a powerful researcher, dr. bane's group incorporates renewable sources and across texases monitor grids in realtime. and innovative models to predict the performance of systems relying on generation such as wind is critical to a more resilient and reliable grid.
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providing 13 million to instruct gleam. the global, will provide a micro grid and platform for optization of renewable grid systems, new hardware and software systems for managing grid functn and cybersecurity of grid systems. this work would not be possible without the support of secretary rick perry. his vision as government tort of the state of texas was critical in making this facility possible. the innovative team of rezeners across tech enables the electric grid of the future. over the next 4 years a minimum of 8 million in energy grid resiliency to enable sustainable and diverse energy economy. we are confident this investment will help the nation obtain its
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goals in alternative energy utilization in a 21st century grid. i am proud to show our vision for the future and serving as a resource for this subcommittee. thank you for this invitation and go tech. >> i will leave that alone. so we are going to recess and we will reconvene immediately following the last.

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